Home Laboratory values Basophil granulocytes: what their blood value means

Basophil granulocytes: what their blood value means

by Josephine Andrews
Published: Last Updated on 182 views

Basophilic granulocytes belong to the group of white blood cells (leukocytes). They are part of the body’s immune system. In certain allergic reactions such as asthma or hay fever, they are increasingly detectable in the blood. Read everything you need to know about blood cells and when to determine them.

What are basophil granulocytes?

Basophilic granulocytes are formed in the bone marrow and are part of the cellular immune system. This consists, among other things, of white blood cells, the leukocytes , which are differentiated according to their function. There are granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes . If you stain the granulocytes with a specific color and then look at them under the microscope, you can easily tell them apart: They are divided into basophilic (dark purple), eosinophilic (reddish) and neutrophilic (light purple) granulocytes. These subgroups take on different tasks in the immune system.

For example, basophilic granulocytes are involved in the defense against parasites. However, they can also trigger inflammatory reactions and allergic reactions. Inside they carry messenger substances that can cause or intensify an allergic reaction after release. If the basophilic granulocytes migrate into the skin and release the messenger histamine there, they cause severe itching .

The proportion of basophilic granulocytes in the blood is low. In certain diseases, however, they are increasingly detectable.

When are basophilic granulocytes determined in the blood?

 The proportion of basophilic granulocytes in the so-called differential blood count is determined if certain blood diseases or infections with parasites are suspected.

Basophilic granulocytes – normal values

The normal values ​​for basophils are given as a percentage (percentage of total leukocyte count):

Female male
up to 14 days 0.1 – 0.6% 0.1 – 0.8%
15 to 60 days 0.0 – 0.5% 0.0 – 0.6%
61 days to 1 year 0.0 – 0.6% 0.0 – 0.6%
2 to 5 years 0.0 – 0.6% 0.1 – 0.6%
6 to 17 years 0.0 – 0.6% 0.0 – 0.7%
from 18 years 0.1 – 1.2% 0.2 – 1.2%

When are there too few basophilic granulocytes in the blood?

Possible causes of a reduced number of basophils include:

Note: If no or hardly any granulocytes are detectable in the blood, this is called agranulocytosis. Basophilic granulocytes are then also absent.

When are there too many basophilic granulocytes in the blood?

In the case of infections in the blood, all forms of leukocytes are frequently detectable in the blood. Only rarely does the number of basophilic granulocytes increase.

The proportion of basophils is increased, for example, in the following diseases:

  • certain forms of blood cancer (chronic myeloid leukemia , basophilic leukemia)
  • Polycythemia (abnormal proliferation of red and white blood cells)
  • rheumatism
  • ulcerative colitis
  • Diabetes mellitus (diabetes)
  • parasites in the body

What to do if there are too many or too few basophils?

In addition to the blood cells, other values ​​in the blood must also be determined in order to find the cause of an increased or decreased number of basophilic granulocytes. If necessary, an examination of the bone marrow follows. If a parasite infestation can be detected in the body, very often too many basophilic granulocytes can be detected in the blood. The infection is then treated appropriately.

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