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Blood White

by Josephine Andrews
Published: Last Updated on 283 views

Blood proteins such as albumin fulfill many vital tasks in the body. For example, some serve as transport vehicles for hormones, fats and minerals. Others act as defense troops of the immune system (antibodies). Read more about the tasks of blood proteins and their measurement using electrophoresis!

What are proteins and what are blood proteins?

Proteins are essential to life. As enzymes or hormones, for example, they contribute to the smooth running of the metabolism.

Proteins are made up of amino acids . Some of these can be produced by the body itself, while others cannot. The latter become “essential amino acids” and must be obtained from food.

Blood is about 91.5 percent water. The remaining 8.5 percent are dissolved substances – mainly proteins (proteins). Some proteins in blood plasma are also found in other parts of the body, while some are only found in plasma. The latter are called plasma proteins.

plasma proteins

The plasma proteins are mainly produced by liver cells and fulfill various tasks: For example, they are important for the distribution of liquids in the body, serve as transport proteins, are antibodies (immunoglobulins) or play a role in inflammation (acute phase proteins). Many plasma proteins perform multiple functions.

The main plasma proteins are:

  • albumin
  • globulins

Albumin is the most common plasma protein. It acts as a transport protein for various substances, such as some hormones and fatty acids.

The globulins are a large group of different proteins that can be divided into four subgroups:

The alpha and beta globulins serve as specific transport vehicles for hormones, fats and minerals . Gamma globulins, on the other hand, are soluble antibodies.


The individual protein groups of the plasma proteins are primarily analyzed with the help of electrophoresis . This method makes it possible to separate a mixture of substances into its individual components according to their size and electrical charge. The protein electrophoresis of the blood provides a curve diagram that shows the concentrations of albumin and the four globulin groups side by side. The ratio of the individual globulins can give the doctor an indication of an underlying disease. Because with some diseases, not only the total amount of blood proteins changes, but above all the ratio of the individual components to each other. This is the case, for example, with cirrhosis of the liver .

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