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High blood pressure: symptoms, causes & therapy

by Josephine Andrews
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High blood pressure (hypertension) is a widespread disease characterized by persistently high pressure in the vessels. This pressure is above 140/90 mmHg. In the long term, high blood pressure damages the vessels and thus contributes to the development of secondary diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. Here you can read everything you need to know about the symptoms, causes, dangers and treatment of hypertension!

ICD codes for this disease:

ICD codes are internationally valid codes for medical diagnoses. They can be found, for example, in doctor’s letters or on certificates of incapacity for work.

O14 I10 I11 O13 I15 I13

quick overview

  • Symptoms: Headaches (especially in the morning), nosebleeds, dizziness, easy fatigue, flushed face, shortness of breath, sleep disorders, tinnitus, etc.; possibly symptoms of secondary diseases such as chest tightness, water retention in the tissue (edema) or visual disturbances
  • Causes and risk factors: Unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. smoking, high-calorie diet, lack of exercise), stress, age, family predisposition, menopause and pregnancy, other diseases (e.g. metabolic disorders such as diabetes, organ damage such as kidney diseases, cardiovascular diseases ), medicines
  • Examinations and diagnosis: Physical examinations and blood pressure measurements (usually long-term blood pressure over 24 hours), blood and urine tests, kidney ultrasound, echocardiography
  • Treatment: lifestyle change (a lot of exercise and sport, losing weight, healthy nutrition, stopping smoking, etc.), possibly antihypertensive medication; Treatment of the underlying disease in secondary hypertension
  • Course of the disease and prognosis: Course and prognosis are usually very good with consistent therapy; without therapy, complications such as more severe courses of infection, cardiovascular diseases, kidney weakness and kidney failure or damage to the retina in the eye are possible; spontaneous severe high blood pressure as a hypertensive crisis (= emergency)
  • Prevention: Healthy lifestyle and diet, sufficient exercise, avoiding or minimizing stress, relaxation exercises, reducing or stopping smoking

What is high blood pressure? When is blood pressure too high?

In the case of high blood pressure (hypertension), the blood pressure values ​​are permanently too high. Strictly speaking, high blood pressure is not a disease, but rather a risk factor for other, often chronic diseases.

The blood pressure values ​​result from the fact that with every heartbeat the heart pumps blood into the blood vessels, whereby the blood exerts pressure on the vessel wall from the inside. Depending on the action of the heart, doctors differentiate between two blood pressure values ​​- a high and a low one:

  • Systolic blood pressure (upper value) : It occurs during the phase in which the heart contracts (systole). It pumps the blood from the left ventricle into the main artery (aorta) and thus into the systemic circulation; the resulting pressure wave propagates into the arteries and can also be measured in more distant parts of the body (such as arms and legs).
  • Diastolic blood pressure (lower value) : During diastole, the heart muscle expands to allow the ventricles to refill with blood. There is still pressure in the vessels, but it is lower than the systolic blood pressure.

Every person’s blood pressure is subject to certain fluctuations. For example, excitement and physical exertion cause blood pressure to rise, while it is significantly lower when resting or sleeping. These blood pressure fluctuations are normal and serve to adapt the body to the respective situation. In healthy people, the blood pressure values ​​always settle back into the normal range. Treatment is often only necessary if the blood pressure is permanently too high.

Doctors usually use the term high blood pressure in the sense of arterial high blood pressure (arterial hypertension), i.e. increased blood pressure values ​​in the systemic circulation. But there are other forms of hypertension, such as high blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation (pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary hypertension). In this text you will learn everything you need to know about arterial hypertension. Read everything about pulmonary hypertension here .

blood pressure readings

The unit of measurement for blood pressure is mmHg (millimeters of mercury). For example, a reading of 126/79 mmHg (read: 126 over 79) means that the systolic blood pressure is 126 and the diastolic is 79 mmHg. Doctors describe values ​​of less than 120 mmHg systolic and less than 80 mmHg diastolic as optimal blood pressure . In addition, the following reference ranges apply to blood pressure:

degree classification systolic diastolic
normal 120-129mmHg 80-84mmHg
high normal 130-139mmHg 85-89mmHg
Hypertension grade 1

(mild high blood pressure)

140-159mmHg 90-99mmHg
Hypertension grade 2

(moderate high blood pressure)

160-179mmHg 100-109mmHg
Grade 3 hypertension

(severe high blood pressure)

≥ 180mmHg ≥ 110mmHg
Isolated systolic hypertension ≥ 140mmHg < 90mmHg

Isolated systolic hypertension is purely systolic hypertension. The diastolic blood pressure, on the other hand, is reduced. A possible cause is, for example, a malfunction of the aortic valve (one of the heart valves).

Hypertension in children and adolescents

High blood pressure not only affects adults, but also children and adolescents, especially during puberty. More and more young people have high blood pressure, which is why the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) recommends taking blood pressure measurements regularly with preventive medical check-ups from the age of three.

Blood pressure values ​​in children and adolescents are usually lower than in adults. Since their bodies are still developing, no reference values ​​can be set as with adults. The limit values ​​are based on the sex, age and size of the child. As with weight and height, there are so-called percentile curves that define the normal range of blood pressure in children. Thus, all values ​​below the 95th percentile are inconspicuous.

For example, the upper limits are around 110/70 mmHg for children up to the age of six and 140/90 mmHg for young people up to the age of 16.

What are high blood pressure symptoms?

Most patients hardly show any clear symptoms of hypertension, so that the increased vascular pressure often goes unnoticed for a long time. High blood pressure is therefore a “silent” danger. Early treatment is very important to prevent consequential damage. These occur even without previous high blood pressure symptoms. Therefore, it is important to take possible signs of high blood pressure seriously. These include:

  • dizziness
  • Headache, especially in the morning
  • sleep disorders
  • nervousness
  • ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
  • Tiredness/easily fatigable
  • nosebleeds
  • shortness of breath
  • flushed face
  • nausea

Typical for high blood pressure are headaches , which tend to be in the back of the head and occur mainly in the time shortly after waking up. This is a result of nocturnal high blood pressure; blood pressure usually falls during sleep. If this is not the case, there are often problems falling asleep and sleeping through the night . In particular, people who also suffer from sleep apnea often feel restless and “tired” the next day.

slightly reddened face – sometimes with visible red veins ( couperose ) – is also a possible sign of high blood pressure.

High blood pressure often manifests itself in nervousness and shortness of breath . Middle-aged women often misinterpret these hypertension symptoms: they mistake them for menopausal symptoms or stress symptoms in general. The symptoms of high blood pressure are often similar to the symptoms of menopause. For example, women over 50 with high blood pressure are more likely to have mood swings or hot flashes with increased sweating . If in doubt, it is definitely advisable to have high blood pressure checked if there are any noticeable signs.

This also applies if someone often feels dizzy for no apparent reason, as dizziness is also a common symptom of high blood pressure. For some people, the signs of high blood pressure increase in the cold season.

Warning signs of secondary diseases

High blood pressure leads to organ damage in the long term. Warning signals emanate from these organs. For example:

Sometimes doctors don’t diagnose hypertension until a heart attack, stroke, or other serious complication occurs. It is therefore particularly important not to overlook high blood pressure symptoms and to have regular check-ups. In this way, such serious consequential damage can be prevented.

Does high blood pressure show up differently in women than in men?

Most symptoms are similar in women and men. However, there are only a few gender-specific analyzes so far, so that no comprehensive statements can be made.

However, individual studies indicate that high blood pressure in women presents itself differently in some aspects than in men. Experts have found that hypertensive women more often have higher systolic blood pressure and comparatively lower diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, their risk of cardiovascular disease is lower, but their risk of chronic kidney disease is higher.

Furthermore, there are first insights into gender differences in the mechanism underlying the development of hypertension. However, they are not yet sufficient to draw clear conclusions for a more targeted therapy.

What are the causes?

Doctors differentiate between two basic forms of high blood pressure with regard to the cause:

  • Primary hypertension: There is no underlying disease that can be proven to be the cause of high blood pressure. This essential hypertension accounts for about 90 percent of all high blood pressure cases.
  • Secondary hypertension: Here the high blood pressure is caused by another disease as a trigger. These are, for example, kidney diseases, functional disorders of the thyroid gland or other metabolic diseases.

Primary hypertension: causes

What exactly causes primary hypertension has not yet been clearly clarified. However, several factors are known to favor the development of this form of high blood pressure:

  • Family history of high blood pressure
  • Overweight (body mass index = BMI > 25)
  • lack of exercise
  • High salt consumption
  • High alcohol consumption
  • Low potassium intake (fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit or nuts contain a lot of potassium )
  • Smoking
  • Older age (men ≥ 55 years, women ≥ 65 years)

Apparently, there is also a connection between hypertension and menopause in women: high blood pressure occurs more frequently in women after the end of their fertile years. From the age of 75, on average, more women are affected by high blood pressure than men.

There is also another factor in high blood pressure that is often underestimated: stress . Although it is not considered the sole cause of high blood pressure, frequent stress and nervous tension (psychogenic/mental factors) almost always have a negative effect on people with a tendency to hypertension. High blood pressure is often psychosomatic, which means that it is not only due to physical dysfunctions, but sometimes also has psychological causes.

Other influencing factors

Primary hypertension occurs more often than average together with other diseases. These include:

  • Being overweight or obese (obesity)
  • type 2 diabetes
  • Elevated blood fat levels

If these three factors occur at the same time as high blood pressure, doctors speak of metabolic syndrome .

However, if you are overweight, starving yourself is not the best way to lower blood pressure. Read here how to lower high blood pressure in a healthy way .

Secondary hypertension: causes

In secondary hypertension, the causes of high blood pressure can be found in another disease. These are usually kidney diseases, metabolic disorders ( e.g. Cushing’s syndrome ) or vascular diseases.

For example, narrowing of the renal arteries (renal artery stenosis) and chronic kidney disease (e.g. chronic glomerulonephritis, cystic kidneys) are causes of high blood pressure. The same applies to a congenital narrowing of the main artery (aortic isthmus stenosis).

Sleep apnea syndrome is also considered a possible trigger of secondary hypertension. It is a breathing disorder during sleep.

Medications are also possible causes of high blood pressure. Mention should be made here, for example, of hormones (such as the “birth control pill”) and anti-rheumatic drugs. Last but not least, certain drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines usually increase blood pressure abnormally.

Hormone imbalances are less common as a cause of high blood pressure. These include:

  • Cushing’s Syndrome: In this hormone disorder, the body produces too much cortisol. This hormone influences numerous metabolic processes. The body releases it, among other things, when it is stressed.
  • Primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome): Overproduction of the hormone aldosterone due to a disorder in the adrenal cortex (such as a tumor).
  • Pheochromocytoma: This is a mostly benign tumor of the adrenal gland that produces stress hormones (catecholamines such as norepinephrine, adrenaline ). This hormone overproduction leads to high blood pressure episodes with headaches, dizziness and palpitations.
  • Acromegaly: Here a (usually benign) tumor in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces growth hormones uncontrollably. This causes certain parts of the body to enlarge, such as the hands, feet, lower jaw, chin, nose and eyebrow ridges.
  • Androgenital Syndrome: This inherited metabolic disorder leads to impaired production of the hormones aldosterone and cortisol in the adrenal glands. The cause of the disease is a genetic defect that cannot be treated.
  • Dysfunction of the thyroid gland: High blood pressure often occurs in connection with an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).

Furthermore, incorrect posture or diseases of the spine are suspected of triggering high blood pressure. Scientists have found that people with neck pain, for example due to incorrect posture of the cervical spine , often have high blood pressure. Due to the misalignment of the vertebrae, particularly in the area of ​​the first cervical vertebra (atlas), part of the elongated spinal cord ( medulla oblongata ) is squeezed or damaged.

There are control centers for the circulatory system and blood pressure, which fail in the event of damage. Constant tension in the spinal muscles due to a blockage in the upper back and neck further increases the negative effect on blood pressure.

Be careful with certain foods

Coffee has often been said to promote high blood pressure if consumed in excess because of the caffeine it contains. However, experts do not agree on this. Some studies show that moderate and, above all, regular coffee consumption does not have a negative effect. Experts even say that such regular consumption (one to three cups a day) in hypertensive people positively affects the mortality rate. Coffee has a negative effect on blood pressure, especially if it is only consumed occasionally.

Coffee temporarily increases blood pressure. Therefore, if possible, do not drink coffee shortly before a blood pressure measurement.

Doctors warn, among other things, against excessive consumption of liquorice . Liquorice is not only available as a candy, but also as a syrup or in the form of liquorice tea. Experts suspect that an increased concentration and frequent intake of licorice cause blood pressure to rise.

Baking soda , also known as sodium bicarbonate, is believed to have a negative effect on blood pressure when consumed regularly. It has a similar effect to salt and binds a lot of water in the body, which increases blood pressure. This is particularly problematic in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases, in which sodium bicarbonate is included in the standard therapy. Many people also use baking soda to treat heartburn. Occasional use is apparently not a problem. Discuss possible risks with your doctor if you take it more frequently.

hypertension and exercise

Physical exertion during sport causes blood pressure to rise. This is usually not a problem for people with healthy blood pressure values. In the case of high blood pressure patients, on the other hand, the values ​​often rise quickly into a dangerous range. Especially in sports such as strength training with heavy weights, menacing blood pressure peaks sometimes occur. This is especially the case when the weight press is combined with forced breathing.

Nevertheless, sport is recommended in many cases for high blood pressure – with the right type of sport and at an individually suitable training intensity. Many hypertension patients benefit from regular moderate endurance training. In the best case, high blood pressure can even be reduced through sport.

Read more about using exercise to lower high blood pressure here .

hypertension after vaccination

Vaccinations are well tolerated by most people and not dangerous. The vaccines used – both live and inactivated vaccines as well as mRNA-based vaccines – have a specific effect on the body, stimulating the immune system in particular, but not damaging the body itself. However, in some cases there are side effects or complications.

For example, doctors observed elevated blood pressure values ​​in some patients after vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Previous studies have shown that blood pressure rose accordingly after the first vaccination against the virus, but that it normalized again after a few days. Overall, this only affected a few vaccinated people, which is why it can be assumed that a COVID-19 vaccination does not pose an increased risk of high blood pressure.

high blood pressure during pregnancy

Pregnancy-related high blood pressure , i.e. high blood pressure triggered by the pregnancy itself, usually develops after the 20th week of pregnancy (GW). If, on the other hand, the high blood pressure already existed before the pregnancy or developed by the 20th week of pregnancy , it is considered to be independent of the pregnancy.

Pregnancy-related hypertension is often uncomplicated and usually disappears on its own within six weeks after birth . Sometimes, however, it is also the starting point for hypertensive pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia, eclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. These diseases sometimes develop quickly and pose a risk to mother and child. Doctors therefore check the blood pressure of pregnant women regularly as part of preventive medical check-ups.


Preeclampsia is present when pregnant women after the 20th week of pregnancy suffer from high blood pressure and increased protein excretion in the urine (proteinuria). The affected women also usually have water retention in the tissue (edema).

Preeclampsia is one of the so-called pregnancy poisoning (gestosis). If it is not treated by a doctor, it can lead to life-threatening seizures (eclampsia) in the worst case.

You can read more about this pregnancy-related form of high blood pressure in the article Preeclampsia .

How is high blood pressure diagnosed?

Many sufferers live with high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without realizing it. You feel healthy because high blood pressure often does not cause any symptoms for a long time. It is therefore good to know your blood pressure values ​​precisely by checking them yourself regularly and having them checked by a doctor.

measure blood pressure

The most important test to diagnose high blood pressure is blood pressure measurement. However, the one-time measurement says nothing about whether the blood pressure needs treatment or not. Blood pressure fluctuates throughout the day and is increased, for example, after exercise or coffee. Some patients are nervous when the doctor takes their blood pressure, which often temporarily increases blood pressure. This phenomenon is also known as “white coat syndrome”.

Overall, therefore, the following applies: In order to obtain meaningful blood pressure values, repeated measurements (e.g. at three different times) are helpful and necessary. Long-term measurements (over 24 hours) are also useful for diagnosing high blood pressure. Through them, the doctor closely monitors daily fluctuations.

Blood pressure cannot be determined accurately without a suitable blood pressure monitor. Read here how to measure your blood pressure correctly !

Further diagnostic steps

The doctor usually asks the patient about existing pre-existing conditions that could be the cause of secondary hypertension. These are, for example, kidney or thyroid diseases.

Blood and urine tests or an ultrasound scan of the kidneys may be necessary. Echocardiography can also be used to examine and assess heart function and structure. These findings help to distinguish between primary and secondary high blood pressure. Ideally, they also indicate risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (such as increased blood lipid levels) and possible organ damage (e.g. abnormal kidney values).

physical examination is also part of the clarification of high blood pressure. It helps to assess the individual cardiovascular risk and to identify possible signs of blood pressure-related organ damage. High blood pressure is often only recognized when it has already damaged the blood vessels (e.g. arteriosclerosis). The vessels of the heart, brain , kidneys and eyes are particularly affected . In the long run, the heart muscle also takes damage, and heart failure (cardiac insufficiency) is the result. Further examinations, for example of the eyes, heart and kidneys, are necessary for a more detailed examination of any secondary diseases.

Therapy of high blood pressure

How high blood pressure is treated in individual cases depends on various factors. Above all, the level of blood pressure and the individual risk for secondary diseases such as CHD (coronary heart disease), heart attack or stroke are decisive. When planning therapy, the doctor also takes into account the age of the patient and any underlying or concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus.

The European guideline recommends reducing blood pressure to below 140/90 mmHg for most hypertensive patients. If the person concerned tolerates the treatment, a target value of less than 130/80 mmHg is aimed for. However, it is important not to fall below the target value of 120/70 mmHg. Depending on the patient group, there are also different recommendations:

  • For “frail” elderly patients and those over 65 years of age, doctors aim for a systolic blood pressure between 130 and 139 mmHg.
  • In patients with kidney disease (nephropathy) and accompanying proteinuria, a systolic blood pressure value of less than 125/75 mmHg is usually advisable.
  • A diastolic blood pressure value below 80 mmHg is recommended for diabetic patients and all other hypertensive people.

The doctor also adapts the recommendations for the target blood pressure values ​​individually.

Lower blood pressure: What you can do yourself

The basis of high blood pressure therapy is a lifestyle change . This includes, for example, trying to reduce existing excess weight . A healthy and balanced diet and regular exercise will help. However, doctors also recommend both of these to high blood pressure patients who do not weigh too many pounds. It is essentially about protecting and strengthening the cardiovascular system.

It is also very advisable to give up smoking if you have hypertension so as not to further aggravate the cardiovascular risk. Doctors also recommend reducing stress, if necessary with the help of relaxation techniques such as autogenic training or yoga.

In addition, many patients try to reduce high blood pressure to a healthier level with home remedies or alternative healing methods such as homeopathy.

You can read more about what you can do yourself if you have high blood pressure in the article Lowering blood pressure .

Home remedies can at best complement conventional medical treatment, but cannot replace it. If the symptoms persist over a longer period of time, do not get better or even get worse, you should always consult a doctor.

Medicines for high blood pressure

If the high blood pressure remains high despite a change in lifestyle, the doctor usually prescribes additional blood pressure-lowering medication (antihypertensives). There are five main groups of drugs that are used primarily for high blood pressure and in tablet form. They reliably lower blood pressure and are usually well tolerated. This includes:

  • ACE inhibitors
  • AT1 antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers, sartans)
  • beta blockers
  • Diuretics (water pills)
  • calcium antagonists

When and which medication is best suited depends on the individual case. In addition, the following applies: Sometimes taking a single drug is sufficient to reduce high blood pressure sufficiently (monotherapy). In other cases, a combination of different drugs is necessary (combination therapy), for example an ACE inhibitor and a calcium antagonist.

Despite good tolerability, side effects sometimes occur with blood pressure medication . For example, some beta-blockers cause circulatory disorders, which are then associated with a general feeling of cold and often cold hands and feet. Some patients report, for example, that they freeze more often and tremble accordingly.

Impairments of sexual sensitivity up to erectile dysfunction also occur. If you observe such side effects, talk to your doctor immediately, as it may be necessary to change the preparation.

In the case of secondary hypertension , simply taking antihypertensive drugs is not enough. Instead, the doctor will treat the underlying disease and thus the trigger of the high blood pressure. For example, narrowed renal arteries (renal artery stenosis) can be widened in a surgical procedure. This usually lowers the high blood pressure.

Is high blood pressure dangerous?

The prognosis for high blood pressure varies from patient to patient and cannot be predicted in general. The course of the disease depends on several factors. These include, for example, the level of blood pressure and the presence of concomitant diseases. In general, the earlier high blood pressure is detected and treated, the lower the risk of complications such as a heart attack or stroke. If the hypertension is not treated, however, the risk of consequential damage increases.

In order to keep an eye on the blood pressure values ​​and to recognize possible secondary diseases at an early stage, it makes sense and is important to have regular check-ups with your doctor.

With consistent therapy, blood pressure can usually be adjusted and controlled very well. Also, the symptoms of high blood pressure alone are often not that severe, so that longer periods of illness and inability to work are generally not to be expected.

High blood pressure permanently damages important organs such as the heart and its supplying vessels (coronary arteries), the other blood vessels, the brain and the kidneys. In the worst case, this triggers life-threatening diseases and reduces life expectancy.

Benign and malignant hypertension

Doctors used to speak of “benign (essential) hypertension” if no critical deterioration in blood pressure (exacerbations) occurred during the course of the disease. Many experts now reject this term because “benign” (= benign) hypertension is also very dangerous and has an increased mortality rate.

The counterpart to benign hypertension is “malignant (= malignant) hypertension”. It is defined by constant, massive high blood pressure (usually diastolic > 120 mmHg), which, if left untreated, leads to death in 95 percent of those affected within five years. But this designation is no longer generally accepted.


High blood pressure is often associated with a more severe course of infectious diseases , especially in older people, those with previous illnesses or pregnant women . They are considered to be at increased risk, which is why doctors recommend vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, for example.

In the heart area, high blood pressure promotes arteriosclerosis (hardening of the blood vessels) of the coronary arteries, for example. This coronary artery disease (CHD) often leads to cardiac insufficiency (cardiac insufficiency) or cardiac arrhythmia . A heart attack is also possible.

Stroke occurs more frequently in the brain of hypertensive patients than in healthy individuals . The circulatory disorders that high blood pressure triggers also affect the smallest vessels in the brain (microangiopathy). This results in a chronic undersupply of the brain tissue with oxygen and nutrients. It impairs brain performance and promotes early mental deterioration ( vascular dementia ).

The vascular damage caused by high blood pressure also affects the kidneys and their function over time: Possible consequences are chronic kidney weakness ( chronic kidney failure ) and even kidney failure .

The circulatory disorders that develop as a result of high blood pressure also have a negative effect on other parts of the body. For example, peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) often develops in the legs . In the eyes, they damage the retina, which impairs vision. Doctors speak of hypertensive retinopathy here .

The constant pressure load in the vessels leads to the formation of bulges in the vessel wall ( aneurysms ). When these rupture, they cause life-threatening internal bleeding. Aneurysms in the area of ​​the main artery (aortic aneurysm) and in the brain pose a particular risk: a bursting brain aneurysm causes a hemorrhagic stroke.

Hypertensive crisis

In a hypertensive crisis (high pressure crisis) , blood pressure suddenly increases dramatically, to values ​​in excess of 230 mmHg (systolic) and/or 130 mmHg (diastolic). This triggers headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, for example.

If there are signs of organ damage due to the massive increase in blood pressure (such as angina pectoris), doctors speak of a hypertensive emergency . Then there is danger to life. In the worst case, such high blood pressure can be fatal for the person concerned. In such a case, call the emergency doctor immediately !

Hypertensive crisis is usually seen in patients with chronic hypertension. It rarely occurs in people whose blood pressure is otherwise normal. The trigger is then, for example, acute kidney corpuscle inflammation (acute glomerulonephritis).

You can read more about the development, symptoms and treatment of hypertensive crisis in the article Hypertensive Crisis .

Can high blood pressure be avoided?

High blood pressure does not have to be! It is often due to an unfavorable or unhealthy lifestyle that causes high blood pressure in the first place, similar to other cardiovascular diseases. They can usually be prevented with regular exercise or sport and a healthy and balanced diet . Drink an adequate amount of liquid daily . If you drink too little, this can have a negative effect on your blood pressure.

If you smoke, it is advisable to stop smoking or at least reduce it to a minimum .

If you are at increased risk because of other underlying conditions, it is advisable to have them treated as soon as possible . Also try to lose weight if you are overweight and avoid excessive and prolonged stress .

Not only physical overload is harmful to health, but also mental stress. Even if everything is fine physically, permanent mental stress is sometimes reflected in physical suffering. For example, if you often have very stressful working days, small regular actions in your private everyday life will help to shed your professional worries.

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