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Vitamins in food: Here they are!

by Josephine Andrews
Published: Last Updated on 406 views

A balanced diet is important to stay healthy and fit. Malnutrition can be avoided by getting enough minerals and vitamins in food . Read here which vitamins are in which places and how best to prepare the relevant foods.

Vitamins in food: which ones are in which?

Vitamins are tiny molecules, of which in most cases even the smallest amounts are sufficient to have a major effect in the body. In order to cover the need, the German Society for Nutrition (DGE) recommends the rule of thumb “five a day”. This means that it is best to eat five servings of fruit and vegetables every day. A serving is about a handful of food. This will provide your body with many of the necessary vitamins and other important nutrients.

Vitamins are divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble. Vitamins A, D, E and K belong to the fat-soluble ones. Vitamins B and C belong to the water-soluble ones.

While the body can only store small amounts of water-soluble vitamins, it is able to accumulate larger reserves of fat-soluble vitamins. In addition, fat-soluble vitamins are best utilized with the addition of fat. Water-soluble vitamins, on the other hand, should not be left in water for too long for too long so that their valuable ingredients are not lost.

There are 13 vitamins in total – “Vitamin B” is a group of eight different vitamins. We will introduce them to you and explain which foods are particularly rich in vitamins.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is one of the fat-soluble vitamins. It is involved in vision, is involved in reproduction and ensures healthy bones, cartilage and teeth. It plays a special role for the skin: vitamin A supports structure and regeneration. It is therefore often an ingredient in skin creams and serums in the form of retinol. The precursor of vitamin A, beta-carotene, also scavenges free radicals. The aggressive oxygen compounds can damage cells and DNA.

Liver and sea fish are particularly rich in vitamin A. It is also found in eggs, milk and milk products. Beta carotene is found specifically in green, yellow and red vegetables and fruits such as carrots, spinach , broccoli, peppers, cherries or grapefruit.

Read more about foods with vitamin A here .

Vitamin D

Vitamin D belongs to a group of fat-soluble vitamins, the most well-known forms being vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Vitamin D is important for bone metabolism. It is responsible for the formation and maturation of bone stem cells and is important for healthy teeth.

Among all vitamins, this so-called sun vitamin has a special status: the body is able to produce and store it itself from sunlight. This is not a problem in summer, but there may be a shortage in the dark winter months. Talk to a doctor to see if it would make sense to take dietary supplements. You can also get vitamin D from food, albeit in smaller amounts.

Vitamin D is contained in herring, eel and chicken egg yolk. Various types of cheese such as Gouda, Emmental and processed cheese also provide some vitamin D.

Read more about foods with vitamin D.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is also one of the fat-soluble vitamins. Its antioxidant effect is important. It also defuses free radicals. The aggressive oxygen compounds that are produced during various metabolic processes in the body and as a result of environmental influences can damage cells. Vitamin E can also reduce inflammatory reactions, prevent arteriosclerosis and support memory.

Natural vitamin E can only be produced by plants. However, it also accumulates in small amounts in animal products via the food chain. It is contained in particularly high amounts in wheat germ, sunflower, safflower and rapeseed oil.

Read more about foods with vitamin E here .

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that occurs naturally as vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. It plays an important role in blood clotting, prevents calcium deposits, regulates cellular processes such as cell division, and aids in repairs in the eyes, kidneys, liver, blood vessels, and nerve cells.

Vitamin K1 is mainly found in green plants. Suppliers are, for example, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale. Herbs like chives, seaweed, and vegetable oils are also good sources. Vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria such as E. coli, which are also found in the human gut. It is also found in small amounts in foods of animal origin such as meat, eggs and dairy products.

Read more about foods with vitamin K.

Vitamin B

Vitamin B is a complex of eight water-soluble vitamins.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

The vitamin is involved in numerous metabolic processes – such as the breakdown of carbohydrates. It is mainly found in whole grain products, oatmeal , wheat germ, sunflower and pine nuts, muscle meat and legumes.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Similar to vitamin B1, riboflavin is also responsible for metabolic processes in the body. You can ingest it through food such as cereal germ flakes, offal, pollock, Emmental, mountain cheese, mushrooms and nuts.

Read more about vitamin B2 here .

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Niacin is involved in various reactions in the body’s cells and supports the body’s regeneration, for example in the event of sore muscles. They eat a lot of fish, offal and beef, among other things.

Read more about vitamin B3 here .

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)

This vitamin helps the body convert food into usable energy. Its name derives from the Greek word “pantothen” which means “everywhere”. Almost all foods contain vitamin B5. Yeast, liver, fish, egg yolks, grains, and legumes are particularly good sources.

Read more about vitamin B5 here .

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 strengthens nerves and defenses and supports certain metabolic processes. You can find it in the muscle meat of turkey breast, beef tenderloin or chicken. Salmon, herring and dairy products are also rich in vitamin B6. It is also found in potatoes, avocados and nuts.

Read more about vitamin B6 here .

Vitamin B7

The vitamin, also known as biotin , is particularly important for the health of skin, hair and nails. Good sources include beef liver, yeast, egg yolks, peanuts, and oatmeal. It is also found in dairy products, tomatoes, carrots, mushrooms, soybeans and lentils.

Vitamin B9 (folic acid)

This vitamin is involved in the formation, division and regeneration of cells. It is therefore particularly important for women who wish to have children and who are pregnant. It is rich in chickpeas, lentils, peas, spinach leaves, fennel and potatoes.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 ensures smooth processes in cell division and differentiation, the construction of nerve cells in the spinal cord and helps with protein and nucleic acid metabolism. Good sources are animal foods. This includes meat, fish, seafood, eggs and dairy products. Plant-based foods contain little vitamin B12. The amount also varies greatly.

Read more about vitamin B12 here .

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as ascorbic acid. The body needs vitamin C, for example, to build up connective tissue, bones and teeth. It also has an antioxidant effect, meaning it protects cells from harmful compounds such as free radicals.

Vitamin C is mainly found in plant foods. Good suppliers are, for example, acerola, rose hips, apples, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and spinach. Stinging nettle also contains vitamin C

Read more about foods with vitamin C here .

There are many foods rich in vitamins. You can see which vitamins are in which foods in the following table:

vegetables Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
Aubergine 7 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,6 0,08 5
cauliflower 2 0,1 0,1 0,11 0,6 0,2 69
Broccoli 146 0,6 0,1 0,2 1,1 0,28 115
Lamb’s lettuce 663 0,6 0,07 0,08 0,4 0,25 35
Kale 1147 1,7 0,1 0,2 2,1 0,25 105
cucumbers
Lettuce Cucumber 65 0,1 0,02 0,03 0,2 0,04 8
Salted Dill Pickle 41 0,1 Sense 0,02 0,1 0,02 2
Ginger 1 0 0,02 0,04 0,7 0,16 5
carrots 1700 0,5 0,07 0,05 0,6 0,3 7
potatoes
potato raw 1 0,05 0,1 0,05 1,2 0,3 17
Potato Chips 10 6,1 0,22 0,1 3,4 0,89 8
pumpkin 128 1,1 0,05 0,07 0,5 0,1 12
Paprika 180 2,5 0,05 0,04 0,3 0,23 120
Plize
Oyster mushroom 0 0 0,19 0,29 10 0,09 Sense
Mushrooms 2 0,1 0,1 0,45 4,7 0,06 4
chanterelle 217 0,1 0,02 0,23 6,5 0,04 6
radish 3,8 Sense 0,04 0,04 0,2 0,06 27
Cauliflower 94 0,6 0,13 0,13 0,7 0,3 112
Rotate Bete 2 0,05 0,03 0,04 0,2 0,05 10
Salat
Chicory 572 0,1 0,05 0,03 0,2 0,05 10
Chinakohl 71 0,24 0,03 0,04 0,4 0,12 26
Sauerkraut 3 0,2 0,03 0,05 0,2 0,2 20
Saddlery 0 0,2 0,04 0,07 0,85 0,09 7
asparagus Sense 2,1 0,11 0,11 1 0,06 20
Spinach 795 1,4 0,1 0,2 0,6 0,2 51
tomatoes
fresh tomato 114 0,8 0,06 0,04 0,5 0,1 25
Dosentomaten 81 0,5 0,06 0,03 0,7 0,06 17
Zucchini 37 0,5 0,2 0,09 0,4 0,12 16
fruit Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
Pineapple 10 0,1 0,08 0,03 0,2 0,08 20
Apple 6 0,5 0,04 0,03 0,3 0,1 12
Avocado 12 1,3 0,08 0,15 1,1 0,5 13
Banana(n) 8,5 0,3 0,05 0,06 0,7 0,37 11
pear 2 0,4 0,03 0,04 0,2 0,02 5
Dates, dried 25 0,2 0,04 0,09 2 0,13 2
strawberry(s) 3 0,1 0,03 0,06 0,6 0,06 62
figs 8 0,5 0,05 0,05 0,4 0,1 3
pomegranate 7 0,2 0,05 0,02 0,3 0,11 7
blueberries 5,7 2,7 0,02 0,02 0,4 0,06 22
raspberries 4 0,9 0,03 0,07 0,3 0,08 25
Currants , red 4,2 0,7 0,04 0,03 0,2 0,05 36
persimmon fruit 266 0,8 0,02 0,02 0,3 0,05 16
cherries, sweet 6 0,1 0,04 0,04 0,3 0,05 15
Kiwi 7 0,5 0,02 0,05 0,4 0,02 46
Mango 205 1 0,05 0,04 0,7 0,13 37
Papaya 160 0,7 0,03 0,04 0,3 0,03 80
passion fruit 108 0,4 0,02 0,1 2,1 0,4 20
Physalis 0 0,5 0,06 0.04 2,58 0,05 28
Grapes 1 0,7 0,05 0,03 0,3 0,07 4
watermelon 38 0,1 0,05 0,05 0,2 0,07 6
lemon 0,6 0,4 0,05 0,02 0,2 0,06 53
plums 65 0,8 0,07 0,04 0,4 0,05 5
Milk & dairy products Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
buttermilk 9 Sense 0,03 0,16 0,1 0,04 1
Crème fraiche, 40% fat k.A. 1,1 0,03 0,11 Sense 0,01 1
UHT milk, low-fat, 1.5% 13 Sense 0,04 0,18 0,1 0,05 2
Yoghurt, cow’s milk, low-fat, 1.5% 13 Sense 0,03 0,18 0,1 0,05 1
cocoa powder (skimmed milk) k.A. k.A. 0,04 0,18 0,1 0,05 1
Kefir, 3.5% fat 31 0,1 0,03 0,18 0,1 0,05 1
Cow’s milk 3.5% fat 31 0,1 0,04 0,18 0,1 0,05 2
milk pudding 30 Sense 0,03 0,14 0,1 0,04 2
meat Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
Eisbein 6 0,4 0,32 0,19 3,3 0,45 0
Ground beef (half beef/half pork) 5 k.A. 0,4 0,15 4 k.A. k.A.
Hase 0 0,5 0,09 0,06 08. Jan 0,3 k.A.
Lammkotelett 0 0,6 0,13 0,18 4,3 0,33 0
Leber, Rind 18000 0,7 0,3 2,9 13,6 0,71 31
Venison 0 k.A. k.A. 0,25 k.A. k.A. 0
beef tenderloin 20 0,5 0,1 0,13 4,6 0,5 0
pork chop 9 0,6 0,8 0,19 4,3 0,5 0
Pork schnitzel (topside) 6 0,7 0,8 0,19 4,3 0,39 0
Wurst
beer ham 0 k.A. 0,31 0,18 3,8 k.A. 0
Bratwurst, pork 4 0,3 0,28 0,22 3,2 0,39 0
yellow sausage 2 0,3 0,49 0,12 2,3 0,25 0
cooked ham 0 0,3 0,61 0,26 3,5 0,36 k.A.
Leberkäse/Meatloaf 3 0,3 0,05 0,15 2,4 0,3 24
Liverwurst, coarse 8300 0,3 0,2 0,92 3,6 k.A. k.A.
Munich white sausage 12 0,3 0,04 0,13 2,4 0,28 0
Salami Sense 0,1 0,18 0,2 2,6 0,33 0
Ham, smoked 4 0,3 0,88 0,23 6,9 0,51 0
poultry
Body 51 0 0,3 0,2 3,5 0,33 7
Gans 65 k.A. 0,12 0,26 6,4 0,58 k.A.
Chicken 260 0,3 0,06 0,17 8,8 0,35 0
Puter 13 2,5 0,1 0,18 10,5 0,46 0
Fish & Seafood
Shrimp 2 4 0,05 0,03 2,4 0,13 2
Halibut 32 0,9 0,08 0,07 5,9 0,42 Sense
Hering 38 1,5 0,04 0,22 3,8 0,45 Sense
cod 7 1 0,06 0,05 2,3 0,2 2
Salmon 15 0,9 0,18 0,16 7,2 0,98 1
mussel 54 0,8 0,16 0,22 1,6 0,08 3
Matjeshering 46 2,2 0,04 0,22 3,5 0,28 2
Seelachs 6 0,4 0,09 0,35 4 0,29 Sense
tuna 450 1,2 0,16 0,16 8,5 0,46 Sense
Octopus 10 2,4 0,07 0,05 2,6 0,39 5
Zander 1 1,5 0,16 0,25 2,3 0,25 1
Grain Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
Amaranth 3 1,4 0,8 0,19 1,1 0,4 0
buckwheat , whole flour 0 2,1 0,58 0,15 2,9 0,58 0
Green spelt (spelt), grain 0 0,3 0,3 0,1 1,5 0,3 0
oatmeal 0 1,2 0,55 0,15 1 0,16 0
millet 0 0,4 0,43 0,11 1,8 0,52 0
more, korn 185 2 0,36 0,2 1,5 0,4 0
Popcorn 80 2,9 0,3 0,12 1,2 0,22 0
Quinoa 3 1,4 0,17 0,11 0,5 0,44 0
Rice , polished, raw 0 0,3 0,44 0,03 3,5 0,4 0
Wild trip 0 1 0,4 0,09 1,3 0,65 0
Fats & Oils Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
butter (sweet/sour cream) 653 2,2 0,01 0,02 Sense 0,01 Sense
pumpkin seed oil k.A. 4 k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A. 0
linseed oil k.A. 5,2 k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A. 0
margarine (plant) 608 13,6 Sense Sense Sense k.A. Sense
olive oil 120 13,2 0 0 0 0 0
rapeseed oil 550 30 k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A. 0
lard 0 1,5 0 0 0 k.A. 0
sunflower oil 4 50 0 k.A. k.A. k.A. 0
Nuts & Seeds Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
Cashewkerne 10 0,8 0,63 0,25 1,8 0,42 0
Chia seeds 16 0,5 0,62 0,17 8,8 k.A. 2
Peanut kernels, roasted 110 10 0,25 0,14 14,3 0,4 0
hazelnut kernels 5 26,6 0,4 0,2 1,4 0,31 3
pumpkin seeds 38 4 0,22 0,32 7,8 0,9 Sense
Linseed, unpeeled 0 1,3 0,17 0,16 1,4 0,2 1
Macadamianüsse 0 1,5 0,28 0,12 1,5 0,28 0
Almonds, sweet 23 25,2 0,22 0,6 4,1 0,16 0
pine nuts 8 13,7 1,3 0,23 4,5 0,11 2
Sunflower seeds, shelled 3 21,8 1,9 0,14 4,1 0,6 0
Walnusskerne 10 6 0,35 0,1 1 0,87 3
confectionery Vitamins in food per 100 g
A/µg E/mg B1/mg B2/mg Niacin/mg B6/mg C/mg
Honig Sense k.A. 0,03 0,05 0,1 0,16 1
Cocoa powder, slightly de-oiled, dark Sense 0,9 0,1 0,4 2,7 0,1 0
jam 2 0,1 Sense Sense 0,2 0,01 2
Nut nougat cream 31 10 0,12 0,2 2 0,13 1
beet syrup k.A. k.A. 5,4 k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A.
Chocolate (70% cocoa mass) k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A. k.A.

The vitamin values ​​given in the table refer to the consumable portion of the raw food.

Vitamins in food: why do you need them?

Vitamins are involved in all metabolic processes. They strengthen the immune system, build cells, bones and teeth and are involved in blood formation. If there is a lack of vitamins, we quickly see this in the external appearance: skin, hair and nails suffer.

Read more about vitamins for the skin here.

Read more about vitamins for hair here .

Except for vitamin D, the body cannot produce them itself. This means that in order to remain healthy and productive, we have to absorb vitamins from food. Since isolated vitamins, for example in pills and powders, do not have the same effect as the natural variants, it is advisable to cover your needs with a balanced diet.

Vitamins in food: How to preserve them

Since vitamins in food are usually very sensitive to heat and water, there are always some losses when boiling, cooking and chopping. It depends on the type of vitamin, how it is prepared and the food, how many vitamins are lost during preparation. An example: Potatoes that are cooked whole and with the skin lose fewer vitamins than those that are peeled and chopped up and boiled in lots of hot water.

In addition, for most foods, the shorter the cooking time, the more nutrients are retained. Steaming and stewing are the most gentle, as the products only come into contact with the water vapor. Frozen vegetables should be placed in the pan without being thawed and with little water, as vitamins are lost during the thawing process.

Keeping food warm is usually not a good idea either: Valuable vitamins in the food are largely lost in the process.

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